March William Haynes
March William Haynes b. 01/03/1896 Kokomo, Howard, Indiana d. 01/14/1968 San Mateo county, California son of
Elwood & Bertha Beatrice (Lanterman) Haynes
m. married 1st February 19, 1923 Hazel Marie Carter who died May 22, 1925
m. 2nd June 18, 1928 Esther Elizabeth Kennedy b. 09/07/1896 Plymouth, Marshall, Indiana d. 09/26/1986
Santa Clara California d/o Rev. Edward Horatio Kennedy & Iona Saramiah Godwin
Esther's first marriage was Dec 22 1915 Maimia county indiana Robert Hurd Briggs born Nov 2 1895
Miami, Indiana, died Nov 1988 Miami, Indiana son of Albert M Briggs & Ida Lucetta Lovett They
had: Mark H Briggs
His is father was a a pioneer of the great automobile industry - HAYNES Automobile Company which was organized
at Kokomo, Indiana
WWI draft registration - WWI - address was 1913 S. Webster Kokomo, Indiana he was single occupation was
Superindent at Haynes Stellete Co. Kokomo.
From the California Passenger and Crew Lists, 1893-1957: Name: March Haynes Arrival Date: 24 Feb 1939 Age: 43
Birth Date: 3 Jan 1894 Birthplace: Kokomo, Indiana, United States Gender: Male Ship Name: Washington Port of
Arrival: Los Angeles, California Port of Departure: New York, New York. Listed with him is: Esther E. b. Sept 8, 1894
Plymouth, Indiana, Woody b. 17 Nov. 1929 Kokomo, Indiana address for wall given was 1915 S. Webster St. Kokomo
WWII draft registration - list business address as: 630 Union Bank Bldg. occupation was an investor self employed and
contact person was Mrs. Glen Hillis
From the New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957: March William Haynes (620 Union Bank Bldg. Kokomo) Arrival Date:
23 Jan 1953 Estimated birth year: abt 1897 Age: 56 Gender: Male Port of Departure: Cannes, France Ship Name:
Andrea Doria; listed with him was Esther Elizabeth Haynes Age 56 born Plymouth, Indiana.
March William Haynes & Esther Elizabeth Kennedy Had:
Elwood March "Woody" Haynes b. 17 Nov. 1929 Kokomo, Howard, Indiana
ELWOOD HAYNES. Indiana could place in its hall of fame a long list of statesmen, soldiers, scholars and authors,
business and industrial leaders, men who have been in a proper sense creators of our modern destiny, and by
no means least among them would appear the late Elwood Haynes, of Kokomo, whose designation among the
great Americans of his generation will be that of scientist and inventor. Elwood Haynes from boyhood was
interested in the world about him, lived an interesting life and early turned his attention to scientific experiments.
He was a practical scientist, and in particular had a marked genius for turning the discoveriesof the laboratories into
practical forms that would bring new uses and enjoyments to every day life. His name is now and in the future will
be associated chiefly with three achievements. The first was designing America's first mechanically successful gasoline
power automobile. He also discovered a valuable alloy known as Stellite. In recent years increasing significance has
been given to his invention and discovery of stainless steel.
Elwood Haynes was born at Portland, Indiana, October 14, 1857, and died at his home in Kokomo, April 13, 1925.
His father, Judge Jacob March Haynes, was a lawyer and public official of Eastern Indiana. Born at Monsen, Massachusetts,
April 12, 1817, he began at the age of thirteen, work for his father, who conducted a harness and carriage trimming shop
at Southbridge, Massachusetts. Subsequently he took up the study of law, and in 1844 settled at Portland, Indiana.
Judge Haynes married Hilinda Sophia Haines. These parents had a family of eight children, of whom Elwood was the fifth.
The others were: Elinore Josephine, born in June, 1850, and died in 1918, was for many years a school teacher at Portland;
Susan Izabelle, born at Portland in 1851 and died in 1902, was married in 1872 to Charles F. Headington; Walter March,
born in September, 1853, and died on Easter Sunday in 1929, was a director of the Haynes Automobile Company and
president of the Peoples Bank of Portland; Sumner Watson, born April 15, 1855, who is practicing law at Portland and has
been prominent in the Prohibition party of Indiana; Frank, born March 28, 1861, a rancher at Maybell, Colorado; Calvin
Herbert, born February 7, 1864, in the automobile finance business at San Francisco; Edward Maurice, born August
12, 1867, president of the Haynes Milling Company of Portland.
Elwood Haynes was endowed with keen powers of observation and as a boy growing up in the Village of Portland he spent
much of his time in the surrounding forests, learning the ways of wild birds and animals. Books also influenced him, and one
of the most important, which he read when about twelve years of age, was Wells' Principles of Natural .Philosophy and
Chemistry, one of the old time text books whose pages would frighten any modern school boy, but whose contents
opened up a completely new world to Elwood Haynes. He was especially interested in the chapters on chemistry, and at
an early age began to inquire into the fundamental properties of matter. He devised some crude apparatus, which enabled
him to prepare hydrogen gas, chlorine and oxygen. That was the beginning of a lifelong interest in laboratory analysis and
experiment. In after years he devoted special study to the rarer metals, partic ularly chromium, cobalt, aluminum and
tungsten. At the age of fifteen he made a furnace in his back yard, devising a home-made blower, and in that furnace
he succeeded in melting brass and cast iron, but could not develop a temperature high enough to melt steel.
At the age of twenty, having taken two years of work in the recently established high school at Portland, he went east
to Worcester, Massachusetts, and in 1881 was graduated from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. After returning to
Indiana, he taught a district school for a year. The school was five miles from his home and part of the time he walked
the entire distance twice a day. For two years he was principal of the high school of Portland. During 1884-85, he enjoyed
a year of post-graduate study in Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore. For another year he taught in the Eastern Indiana
Normal School, then located at Portland.
Mr. Haynes was a business man as well as a scientist, and the discovery of natural gas at Portland in 1886 gave him the
opportunity to use his talents in both fields. He organized a company for supplying the town with gas. At that time he
devised a method for determining the amount of gas flowing through apertures of various sizes under various pressures.
He also invented a thermostat for regulating the temperature of a room heated by natural gas. This apparatus he used
successfully about fourteen years in his own home.
In 1889 he took charge of the construction of a gas pipe line from Pennville to Portland, a distance of about ten miles.
It was while driving back and forth between Pennville and Portland with a horse and buggy that he conceived the idea
of a machine that would travel on the road under its own power. He rejected the idea of steam power since the use
of fire would always be a menace in case of collision or accident. On the other hand, a little investigation showed him
that the use of electricity would necessitate, in order to provide one horse power for two and a half hours, a battery
weighing about 1,250 pounds. The greatest promise of power seemed to be offered in the internal combustion
engines, which were then in a crude and experimental stage.
Mr. Haynes in 1890 established his home at Greentown and took charge of the gas field of the Indiana Natural Gas & Oil
Company. This company in 1892 completed a line for piping gas from the Indiana field to the City of Chicago. The line was
completed in the fall, and a few weeks later, with the advent of cold weather, the line was clogged with ice, which formed
on the interior of the pipes. Mr. Haynes had previously suggested to the president of the company that this condition might
arise, since the gas, containing a certain amount of moisture, in passing northward into colder regions, and partic ularly where
the pipes were exposed in the sandy district near Kouts and Winamac, would condense the moisture and thus interfere with,
if not completely stop, the passage of the gas. As soon as this stoppage occurred the president asked Mr. Haynes to solve
the problem. The solution he suggested was to freeze the gas or pass it over some hydroscopic material which would
extract the moisture from it before being started through the pipe line. After a number of experiments he decided on the
method of extracting the moisture by freezing the gas, and accordingly a refrigerator plant was set up at Greentown. By this
means about eighteen barrels of water per day were extracted from the gas, and the trouble occasioned by the freezing
in the line was entirely eliminated. Since that time the method devised by Mr. Haynes has been used not only for removing
moisture from gas, but also for drying air.
In 1892 Mr. Haynes established his home at Kokomo, and that Indiana city for many years claimed him as its most eminent
citizen. While living at Greentown he had kept in mind the problem of making a machine for road travel, but the opportunity
to concentrate his mind and carry out practical experiments did not arrive until he was established at Kokomo. In the summer
of 1893 he began the design and completed his drawing in the early fall of that year. He bought a small gas engine from the
Sintz Gas Engine Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan. This engine was of the vertical, single cylinder, two-cycle type, giving
only one brake horse power. Mr. Haynes had not only the problem before him of applying this power to a vehicle that would
run on the road, but he also had to consider and solve other problems in the almost complete absence of scientific or
engineering data, which can now be found available in numberless treatises and text books. In order to find out the torque or
pull required of the engine he attached a bicycle bearing a rider to the rear end of a small buckboard drawn by a horse. The
string from the bicycle was attached to a spring scale fixed in the buggy. The buggy was driven back and forth over the
streets until he established an average of records showing that it required about one and three-quarters pounds of pull for
each hundred pounds of weight of the bicycle and its rider, or about seventeen and a half pounds to pull a load of a
Mr. Haynes placed the order for the manufacture of the machine according to his design with the Kokomo Riverside Machine
Works, owned by Elmer Apperson. Mr. Apperson carefully supervised the construction work and the machine was ready for
trial July 4, 1894. When taken on the streets the crowd immediately gathered around, and it was considered hazardous to
attempt a trial run, since there were no questions as to when the machine would start and when it would stop after it
once got going. Accordingly the machine was towed out into the country, where the motor was thrown into gear by
means of the clutch. The machine was pushed forward a short distance, when the motor started under its own power,
and thus America's first mechanically successful gasoline power automobile was under way. It carried three passengers a
distance of about a mile and a half before it was stopped. It was then turned about and driven all the way back into
Kokomo without making a stop. The speed was only about seven miles per hour, but so long as the road was level it could
maintain this speed for an indefinite period. This little machine was run all told a distance of perhaps a thousand miles.
Compared to our automobile it had an exceedingly crude and limited service, but what it did to awaken the attention
of the world to locomotion by means of internal combustion engines was incalc ulable. The original Haynes motor car
today occupies a conspicuous place in the motor exhibits at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.
Mr. Haynes' second car was built in 1895, also with the assistance of Elmer Apperson. It was a dos-a-dos four-passenger
trap, propelled by a double cylinder, double opposed motor of their own design and manufacture. The machine was entered
in the Chicago Herald Times contest on Thanksgiving Day, 1895. The ground was covered with snow on that day and on the
way to the starting point the machine skidded. One of the wire wheels was broken, and since there was no duplicate of the
wheel in the world, it was impossible for the machine to participate. However, it was awarded a prize of $150 for the best
In 1898 the Haynes-Apperson Company was formed. In 1902 Elmer and Edgar Apperson withdrew and began the manufacture
of cars of their own, and in a short time the name Haynes-Apperson Company was changed to the Haynes Automobile Company,
which continued the manufacture of cars for twenty years, and probably some of the sturdy cars of this name are still on the road.
While Mr. Haynes became a very successful manufacturer, his enthusiasm never subsided for experiment in his laboratory. In 1899 he
discovered an alloy of nickel and chromium, and shortly afterward an alloy of cobalt and chromium. These alloys were produced at
first in very minute quantities, but in 1907 he took out patents covering their manufacture and use. In 1910 a paper was read before
the American Chemical Society at San Francisco describing the alloys and their properties. Undoubtedly his work did much to open the
way for advance in the field of metallurgy in the combination of metals which have revolutionized the technique of tool making and
the application of alloys to practical industry. A still greater advance was made when Mr. Haynes discovered that by adding tungsten
or molybdenum to the cobalt-chromium alloy a much harder composition could be produced. In 1913 patents were issued for these
compositions. In the meantime he had erected a small building on South Union Street in Kokomo for their commercial manufacture,
and between the time of the allowance of the patents and their issue he completed the building and sold a thousand dollars worth of
the metal. These alloys are recognized now as indispensable for lathe tools. Near the end of the third year the business was
organized into a corporation consisting of three members, Richard Ruddell, a banker, James C. Patten, a manufacturer, both of
Kokomo, and Mr. Haynes. The World war made a great market for this product. It has been stated on good authority that fully half of
the shrapnel for the allies was made with Stellite tools.
It was in 1919 that Mr. Haynes secured his patent on his first great discovery, stainless steel. That patent was assigned to the
American Stainless Steel Company of Pittsburgh. At the time of his death Mr. Haynes was one of the board of directors of this
company. Several of the great alloy steel companies are now making stainless steel under a royalty contract, and it is having such
diversified use that undoubtedly in a few years it will be accepted as a commonplace.
In his political affiliation Elwood Haynes was for many years an active figure in the Prohibition party of Indiana. Later he
affiliated with the Republican party. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, was an honorary member of the Rotary Club, member
of the Society of Automobile Engineers, the Chemists Club, and member of the American Chemists Society and the Iron and Steel
He married in 1887 Bertha B. Lanterman, of Portland. They had two children. The daughter, Bernice, born December 7, 1892, is the
wife of Glen R. Hillis,
now a prosecuting attorney of
Howard County, and their three children are Margaret, Elwood
and Robert Hillis.
March Haynes, the only son, was born January 3, 1896, and continues to make his home in Kokomo, where he was reared and educated.
March Haynes married, February 19, 1923, Miss Hazel Marie Carter, who died May 22, 1925. On June 18, 1928, he married Mrs. Esther
Briggs, of Kokomo. They have a son, Elwood March Haynes, born November 17, 1929.
INDIANA ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS OF AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT Vol. 3 By Charles Roll, A.M. The Lewis Publishing